中国法律知识资源总库论文库_期刊

大数据环境下侵犯公民个人信息罪法益的应然转向

【作者】 敬力嘉

【Author】 JING Lijia;

【机构】 武汉大学法学院;德国弗莱堡大学法学院;

【摘要】 按照我国《刑法》第253条之一侵犯公民个人信息罪规定的行为类型,侵害公民个人信息所造成的危害结果兼具个体性与公共性。但公民个人信息是被侵害的对象而非法益,厘清本罪法益才能明确本罪的入罪标准。大数据环境下,信息自决权是公民个人应享有的新型的宪法层面的具体人格权。将本罪法益构建为作为个人法益的信息自决权,或者作为公共法益、不具备实质内涵的信息安全,都不能明确本罪的处罚范围。侵犯公民个人信息罪所保护的法益,是具备实质权利内涵的集体法益,具体为信息专有权,也就是法定主体对于所占有个人信息的处分权限。通过对信息专有权的刑法保护,可以实现对作为宪法法益的信息自决权的间接保护。未来国家立法应当将本罪拆分为"非法获取公民个人信息罪"与"非法提供或出售公民个人信息罪",以信息专有权为核心,进一步完善公民个人信息刑法保护的规范体系,完成从安全本位向权利本位的优雅转身。

【Abstract】 These conducts criminalized by the crime of violating personal information of citizens in article 253(1)of our criminal law would not only lead to harms of individual persons,but also to harms of public legal interests.Personal information of citizens is the object,not the protected legal interest itself.Only with the identification of the legal interest,would its scope of punishment be clarified.The right to self-determination of information as an individual legal interest,and information security as a public legal interest,are not able to draw a clear border of this crime,and is therefore not adequate to be the protected legal interest of this crime.Exclusive right to information,more precisely,the authority of those minors clearly stated in the law and regulations to deal with these personal information about them,should be chosen as the appropriate legal interest.Through the protection by criminal law of this exclusive right to information,an indirect protection of the information self-determination of individual person would be made.In the future,the crime of violating personal information of citizens should be divided into two crimes, "the crime of obtaining personal information of citizens illegally" and "the crime of providing or selling personal information of citizens",in order to upgrade the system of crimes for protection of personal information of citizens,which stands for a gracious transition from security-oriented standpoint to right-oriented standpoint.

【基金】 2016年国家建设高水平大学公派研究生项目资助(项目编号:CSCNO.201606270181);教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目“提高反恐怖主义情报信息工作能力对策研究”(项目编号:17JZD034)的研究成果之一
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